Alliance, in international relations, a formal agreement between two or more states for mutual support in the event of war. Contemporary alliances provide for joint action by two or more independent states and are usually defensive in nature, forcing allies to unite when one or more of them are attacked by another state or coalition. While alliances can be informal, they are usually formalized by a treaty of alliance, the most critical clauses of which are those that define the casus foederis, or the circumstances in which the treaty requires an ally to assist another member. And indeed, the new nation of North Macedonia is well on its way to doing so. The formal approval protocol is expected to be signed by all 29 NATO countries, a process that is expected to be completed by the end of this year or early next year. Negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference have not always been easy. Britain, France and Italy fought together as Allied powers during World War I. The United States entered the war as an associated power in April 1917, and although it fought alongside the Allies, it was not obliged to abide by the already existing agreements between the Allied powers. These agreements tended to focus on the redistribution of territories after the war. US President Woodrow Wilson has firmly rejected many of these agreements, including Italy`s demands on the Adriatic. This has often led to considerable disagreements among the «Big Four.» Treaty negotiations were also weakened by the absence of other important nations. Russia had fought as one of the Allies until December 1917, when its new Bolshevik government withdrew from the war. The Allied Powers refused to recognize the new Bolshevik government and therefore did not invite their representatives to the peace conference.

The Allies were angered by the Bolshevik decision to reject Russia`s unpaid financial debts to the Allies and to publish the texts of secret agreements between the Allies in the post-war period. The Allies also excluded the defeated Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria). Treaties are agreements between and between nations. Treaties have been used to end wars, settle land disputes, and even stabilize new countries. 14. A general association of nations must be formed to settle international disputes. These three countries quickly formed the Axis, an offensive alliance that fought for world domination during World War II with a defensive alliance led by Britain, France, China and, from 1941, the Soviet Union and the United States. With the defeat of the Axis powers in 1945, the victorious Allies founded the United Nations (UN), a global organization committed to the principles of collective security and international cooperation. However, the UN coexisted rather ineffectively with the robust military alliances that the United States and the Soviet Union formed after the war along sharp ideological lines. In 1949, the United States and Canada merged with Britain and other Western European countries to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and in 1955, the Soviet Union and its Central and Eastern European satellites formed the Warsaw Pact after West Germany joined NATO. The Cold War rivalry between these two alliances, which included other U.S.-founded treaty organizations (e.g., the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.B, the Central Treaty Organization, and the ANZUS Pact), ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact in 1991.

The League of Nations was an international diplomatic group developed after World War I to resolve disputes between countries before they broke out into open war. As a forerunner of the United Nations, the league has had a few victories, but has had a mixed record. On June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed at the Palace of Versailles near Paris, France. The treaty was one of many that officially ended the five-year conflict known as World War I. The Treaty of Versailles defined the terms of peace between Germany and the victorious Allies, led by the United States, France and the United Kingdom. Other Central Powers (notably Austria-Hungary) signed other treaties with the Allies. .